Maintenance of transmission lines (2022)

By EPR Magazine Editorial

35219

Maintenance of transmission lines

April 10, 2015

By EPR Magazine Editorial
(Video) Extreme Jobs - High Voltage Power Line Inspection

57

This article covers information about the health diagnostic methods, as well as about preventive and predictive maintenance techniques in cold line and in hot line conditions
Maintenance of transmission linesThe transmission lines play a very important role in transmitting the huge quantum of electrical power generated at various generating stations to the whole area of the country from one end to other end over a distance of several hundreds of kilometers. By such transmission it is possible to distribute the power to the various types of customers through substations, at lowest possible line losses.
For uninterrupted power supply it is essential to maintain the transmission lines in trim and healthy condition.
For preventive and predictive maintenance of transmission lines following methods are applied.

Regular (monkey) thorough line patrolling with digital photography of the line components is carried out.
Thermo-graphic scanning for detecting Hot spots.
Punctured insulator detection by electric field measurement.
Punctured insulator detection by voltage measurement method.
Corona-Detection by Decor camera.
Resistance measurement of electric joint in live line condition (CRM).
Tower footing earth resistance measurement.
Various techniques for EHV line maintenance

(Video) Spacer Installation on 765,000 volt line

Cold line maintenance
Deteriorated tower stub strengthening
Live Line Maintenance techniques Live line maintenance by hot stick method. Bare hand technique for system maintenance. Hot line washing.
Ground patrolling is carried out by Inspection of the line, by walk down survey, and thorough patrolling by climbing on the tower through internal body of the tower and observing the line components keeping safe body clearance. While visual inspection thermo- scanning, digital photograph of the components and corona detection by Daycor camera is carried out.

Tower foundation
Tower earthing
Nut-bolts
Tower members
Anti climbing devices
Number plates, phase plate, danger boards
Clearances, as required by IE Rules
1956 for Ground / river /canal /dam/ structure/ Buildings / Road/ Tree/ Railway/ HT- LT lines/ telephone line crossing, etc. are checked
Broken disc insulator
Flashover disc insulator
Contaminated disc insulator
Split pins / cotter pins/ W pin/ hangers
Conductor and earth wire hardware (tension and suspension hardware, mid span joint)
Conductor condition
Jumper condition
Repair sleeve
Sag and ground clearance
Tack welding to the nuts and bolts of tower
Tower members missing
Armouring, suspension clamp, split pin
Conductor spacer
Vibration dampers for conductor and earth wire
Earth wire fittings flexible earth bond, jumper
Mid span joint and repair sleeve
Bird guard
Conductor and conductor fittings
Armour rod, suspension hardware
Insulator and insulator fittings, hanger, eye bolt, yoke plate, nut- bolts
Corona measurement
Thermo-vision scanning.
Modern health diagnostic methods for EHV linesThermo-vision scanning: By Thermo-vision scanning hot spots on the line live components can be detected.Electromagnetic spectrum having wave length bands of x-rays, ultra violate rays. Visible light, infra red rays and microwaves
Measurement of resistance of electric joint in live line condition (CRM): The sophisticated instrument (live line micro ohm meter) is designed to be attached directly to an energised EHV line through a hot stick and directly reads the resistance in micro ohms. Live line Micro ohm meter is designed to store up to 9 sets of readings.
It measures the voltage drop, the line current, and the calculated resistance is displayed. The ratio of the resistance of the joint (Rj) and the reference resistance of equal length of the conductor (Rc) indicates the condition of the joint. The value Rj / Rc should be < 1 for healthy joint. The ratio > 3 is serious, needs urgent replacement.
Punctured insulator detection using positron instrument by electric field measurement (PID): The positron instrument detects punctured insulator in the string by measuring the electric field across the insulator. The electric field across the punctured insulator is less as compared to healthy insulator.
Punctured insulator detection by voltage measurement method using Ritz’s instrument:
The Ritz’s instrument detects punctured insulator in the string by measuring the voltage across the insulator. The voltage across the punctured insulator is zero.
Coronagraphy by Daycor camera: When voltage on an electrical conductor exceeds threshold value, the air around it begins to ionise to form a blue or purple glow and produces hissing noise.Corona is the polarisation of air molecules due to energy on high voltage.
Electromagnetic spectrum having wave length bands of x-rays, ultra violate rays. Visible light, infra red rays and Micro waves
Tower footing earth resistance: Tower footing earth resistance is measured by the instrument earth tester. The limit for the tower footing earth resistance is 10 ohms.After seeing the modern health diagnostic methods for EHV lines let us see the various techniques for EHV line maintenance as below.
Cold line maintenanceIn the cold line method the maintenance is carried out by availing outage on the line. The works of replacement of defective insulator strings, tightening loose nuts and bolts of the joints, cold line Insulator washing etc. and defects noticed in the thorough line patrolling are rectified, however since there is interruption in the line, there is huge revenue loss and customer’s dissatisfaction, which are the main disadvantages of cold line maintenance. Therefore hot line (live line) maintenance is highly preferable and adopted where ever possible.
Live line maintenance

Advantages of hot line technique
No outage, so no interruption to consumers
No revenue loss
Problem is attended immediately, loose nut-bolts can be tightened by hot line technique and breakdown is avoided. Hence no interruptionEmergency outage is avoided
Contaminated disc insulators can be cleaned by hot line washing, so flashover of disc insulators resulting in to break-down can be avoided
Punctured insulator can be detected with hot stick attached to punctured insulator detecting instrument either by Electric field measurement method or by Voltage measurement method. The punctured insulator can be replaced in live line
Hot spots noticed during thermo graphic scanning can be attended by hot stick method or by bare hand technique as preventive maintenance
Defective jumper can be relieved from the danger of breakdown by providing parallel jumper and emergency is avoided
Very less man-power and very less time is required as compared to cold line method.
Live line maintenance by hot stick methodIn hot stick method the works are carried out by using hot line tools.
Bare hand technique for system maintenance It is based on faraday’s principle. Therefore, when a lineman is shielded in Faraday’s cage wearing Conductive Suit and it gets bonded to an energised conductor, he can work on the conductor and associated hard ware without shock or discomfort.
Hot line tools The tools required for hot line work are made as per IEC 60832, 60895 and 61478.

Tool head required to operate (heat treated aluminium alloy which is used in aero plane)Hot sticks on which the tool is fitted were previously made of wooden handles, but they were heavy. Now epoxy glass handles are used
Engineers and the line men should be trained and authorised for hot line work. Training centres in India are at, Bengaluru (Karnataka) and Gangawal (Punjab)
Conductive suit, hand gloves, socks (woven from thin stainless steel wires and special type of fibers), boots and static belts are also manufactured on above principle
Hot line ladder and swivel sticks (manufactured from epoxy-glass) and adjustable ladder hook. Strain sticks, insulating cradle, tie sticks, roller link sticks, suspension, gin poles, cum along clamps, strain carrier sticks, double string dead end insulator toll, yoke plates, nylon and poly propylene rope, etc.
Ladder monitor kit: To detect micro ampere leakage through the ladder, this monitor kit is connected before it is placed into use and periodical readings are taken during work progress to ensure safe working condition.
Hot line washingThe insulators of lines and equipment are contaminated due to dust, bird droppings, chemical pollution, industrial pollution, saline weather, smoke due to vehicle exhaust, agricultural burning, volcanic ash etc.
The contaminated insulators are susceptible for flashover during humid atmosphere, Drizzling, dew or foggy weather etc. hence need to be cleaned.
The contaminated insulators can be cleaned by hot line washing method for lines including 400 Kv level.

When de-mineralised water jet at very high pressure (300 to 800 psi) is released in the air, the water particles split due to air resistance and so the water path is not continuous, offering the sufficient electrical resistivity more than 30,000 ohm – cm. For better cleaning high pressure compact stream is maintained.
Probe system can be used for continuous monitoring of water conductivity. A light or audible warning and pump throttle control can be integrated in to monitor circuit.For hot line washing water used should have conductivity less than 200 micro mhos per CC to avoid leakage current.
The high pressure water jet is created by electric motor pump or diesel engine operated pump.
Stub strengtheningSince, the transmission line towers are working in agricultural fields, industrial areas, sea shore areas etc. and the tower foundation is embedded in ground, the tower stubs get heavily rusted in life span of about 10-15 years.
The major causes for deterioration are wet, marshy soil around tower stubs on account of rain and drain water, watering of crops by cultivators, chemical reaction due to fertilisers and chemicals, in the farms as well as in industrial areas.
It is necessary to inspect the tower stubs condition if those are deteriorated and such towers are likely to fall in stormy weather. Hence, the deteriorated tower stubs need to be repaired and strengthened.
Tower Stub strengthening process

The area around the tower leg is cleaned
Area of one meter wide and one meter deep is excavated around the leg so as to make a room for the process
Chimney concrete of the tower stub is broken by vibro hammer
The rusted portion of the stub is thoroughly cleaned using power tools
Phospating is done to avoid corrosion. This helps to get perfect etching
Two nos M.S. angle of the same size as the stub, which are pre-treated in the factory for anti-rusting and notching is done for perfect fitting
The angles are welded with specialised welding procedure
Then the welded surfaces are thoroughly cleaned by MRF cleaning agent and protected from rusting by applying special MRF anticorrosive solution
Anti-corrosive, low viscosity epoxy resin is filled up in the cavity in between old and new stub angles
Then after the whole joint is sealed by specialized MRF putty to make the surface plain and leak proof and MRF special paint is applied
Joint is wrapped with glass wool, fibre mesh clothing giving extra protection to the stub.In re-concreting process homogeneous jointing of old and new concrete, special bonding agent which is a specific epoxy adhesive is applied over the surface of the old concrete before final concreting is started
Advanced machines like needle vibrator for re-concreting process are usedIn the concrete special fibre mesh fibre is mixed which gets uniformly dispersed in the concrete as millions of fibres in every cubic metre
For achieving perfect waterproofing of newly cast sub concrete, special 100 per cent MRF PU paint is applied
The concrete is cured by using a curing catalyst for avoiding excess wateringThe concrete portion and the tower leg are painted
And finally the remaining pit portion around the concrete is backfilled with soil by compacting the layers
Thus finally a strong waterproof and anti-rust structure is developed for the tower stub which avoids possibility of tower collapsing due to corroded stub and ensures long and healthy life for the tower lines.
Authored by__

Sudhir S. Kulkarni, Technical Director, RPL.
The author is Technical Director in Ramelex Pvt. Ltd, Pune since last 11 years. He retired as Superintending Engineer (EHV), MSEB-Pune. Ramelex Pvt. Ltd. is a company founded by Mr. Ram B Jogdand, Chairman and Managing Director in the year 1990.
The company provides services in the field of line and substation, construction and maintenance, health diagnostic methods and preventive and predictive maintenance activities in cold line as well as in Hot line techniques.
It also manufactures electric power connectors and conductor accessories and insulator hardware up to 400 Kv level for ACSR, AAAC as well as for HTLS conductors.

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(Video) Replace Broken insulator of 230kV High Voltage Transmission Line | ប្តូអុីសូឡាទ័រខ្សែបញ្ជូន

FAQs

What is transmission system maintenance? ›

What is transmission line maintenance? The periodic checkup and repairing of the Overhead Transmission lines is called the transmission line maintenance. This process includes insulators cleaning, joints tightening and hot spots clearing .

What steps are followed during the maintenance of line? ›

Line patrolling, maintaining ground clearance, replacement of insulators, restringing of lines, replacement of burnt jumpers, replacement of damaged conductor, replacement of damaged pole, etc. are some of the cheeks performed during maintenance. Proper maintenance of line improves its life drastically.

How important are transmission lines? ›

Transmission lines provide a pathway that brings electricity from the source (a substation or power plant) and into businesses, homes, and other buildings that need to use the electricity. If there are issues with the transmission lines, then electricity won't reach the end user.

What is transmission line installation and maintenance? ›

Transmission line installation is a complex job that requires extensive planning, careful coordination or manpower and equipment, and a thorough mastery of construction procedures and techniques. This training program focuses on the part of that job involved with installing conductors on a structure.

How do you service a transmission? ›

Automatic transmission servicing - YouTube

How can I improve my transmission? ›

There are 6 ways to improve automatic transmission performance and reliability. These are servicing the transmission, changing driving habits, driving with lower gears when loaded, maintaining engine performance, having proper alignment of tires, and having the correct tire size.

What is a maintenance procedure? ›

A standard maintenance procedure is a detailed list of steps that describes how to perform a maintenance task and is also a documented standard to which the job or task should be performed.

What is the maintenance process? ›

Maintenance is the process in which changes are implemented either by modifying the existing system's structure or by adding new components to the system. System requirements are changing fastly and to meet this requirement some changes are incorporated and maintained in the system.

What are the method of maintenance? ›

Four general types of maintenance philosophies can be identified, namely corrective, preventive, risk-based and condition-based maintenance.

What is the purpose of transmission? ›

The function of any transmission is transferring engine power to the driveshaft and rear wheels (or axle halfshafts and front wheels in a front-wheel-drive vehicle). Gears inside the transmission change the vehicle's drive-wheel speed and torque in relation to engine speed and torque.

What do you mean by transmission line? ›

A transmission line is a system of conductors that transfers electrical signals from one place to another. The rising and falling of the waves moves the buoy-like structure creating mechanical energy which is converted into electricity and transmitted to shore over a submerged transmission line.

What happens when a transmission line breaks? ›

Like all parts of an engine, transmission cooling lines can wear out. If they break or develop a leak, you will lose transmission fluid, leaving your car vulnerable. Thankfully this is a fairly simple fix, and most transmission line repairs cost between $100 and $500 dollars.

Which type of insulators will use for high voltage transmission line? ›

Suspension Insulator are the most commonly used insulator types in High-voltage transmission applications. Suspension Insulator has higher economical advantage for high voltage application compare to other insulators. There are so many advantages of Suspension insulators over other .

What is transmission repair? ›

Also known as “rebuilding a transmission”, a complete overhaul involves the removal and disassembly of the transmission in its entirety. Every part is inspected for wear and damage, then cleaned in a special cleaning solution, or replaced with another part depending on its condition.

How do you check transmission level? ›

Check the Level

With the engine warmed up, leave the car idling in park on a level surface. Pull out the dipstick, wipe it clean, replace it slowly, and then pull it back out. Check the fluid level—how high the fluid comes up on the dipstick—against the "full" and "low" or "fill" marks on the dipstick.

How do you clean transmission fluid? ›

  1. Smooth an even 1-inch layer of kitty litter over all fresh transmission fluid spots. ...
  2. Mix 2 cups of liquid dish detergent with 1 gallon of hot water. ...
  3. Scrub the spots with a stiff nylon-bristle brush. ...
  4. Repeat scrubbing with hot soapy water and rinsing until the stain is completely gone.

Can you prevent transmission failure? ›

One of the easiest ways you can prevent transmission failure is by regularly checking the transmission fluid level, color, and smell of your vehicle. In order for your transmission to function properly, it requires a certain type of fluid to keep the gears lubricated and prevent them from grinding.

How do you use automatic transmission? ›

How to Use it Correctly, What Not to Do and Maintenance Tips - YouTube

How often should you change transmission fluid? ›

If you drive manual, most manufacturers will recommend changing your transmission fluid every 30,000 to 60,000 miles. If you have automatic, you can typically boost that range up to 60,000 to 100,000 miles. There's no harm in changing your fluid early.

What are types of maintenance? ›

The 6 different types are; Predetermined Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, Corrective Maintenance, Condition-based Maintenance, Predictive Maintenance and Reactive Maintenance. How to Choose the Right Maintenance Strategy?

What is standard maintenance? ›

An SMP or a Standard Maintenance Procedure is a vital part of keeping your equipment in top shape, keeping your employees safe, and maintaining your plant's overall productivity. An SMP is a document containing instructions on how to perform maintenance tasks correctly and efficiently.

What is maintenance example? ›

The definition of maintenance is providing support or upkeep to something. An example of maintenance is a janitor keeping a school clean.

What is the main purpose of maintenance? ›

Purpose of Maintenance:

The main purpose of regular maintenance is to ensure that all equipment required for production are operating at 100% efficiency at all times.

What is the importance of maintenance? ›

Maintenance is an important factor in quality assurance and in some cases determines the long-term success of a company. Poorly maintained resources can cause instability and partially or completely pause the production. Malfunctioning machines or complete breakdowns can become a costly process for most companies.

What is the importance of system maintenance? ›

The purpose of the maintenance process is to sustain the capability of a system to provide a service. This process monitors the system's capability to deliver services, records problems for analysis, takes corrective, adaptive, perfective, and preventive actions, and confirms restored capability.

What are the 4 types of maintenance? ›

There are 4 key types of maintenance management strategies including run-to-failure maintenance, preventive maintenance, predictive maintenance, and reliability-centered maintenance. These maintenance management strategies can be used together, or independently.

What are the 3 main type of maintenance? ›

The Three Types of Maintenance
  • Corrective Maintenance.
  • Preventative Maintenance.
  • Predictive Maintenance.
15 May 2015

What is the purpose of first line maintenance? ›

First-line maintenance includes routine support, replacement and restocking of consumables such as paper and ink, and solving minor problems such as jams from currency, cards or paper. Second-Line Maintenance includes ATM maintenance such as replacing or repairing worn parts as well as updating software.

What are the main components of transmission system? ›

Parts of an Automatic Transmission
  • Transmission Casing. A transmission casing houses all the parts of the transmission. ...
  • Torque Converter. ...
  • Pump (aka impeller). ...
  • Turbine. ...
  • Stator (aka Reactor). ...
  • Torque converter clutch. ...
  • Planetary Gears. ...
  • Brake Bands and Clutches.
9 May 2018

What are the parts of the transmission? ›

What are the 10 parts of transmission? The main components of an automatic transmission include the torque converter, planetary gearset, pump, clutches, bands, sensors, valve body, and last but not least is the transmission fluid, otherwise known as ATF.

What are transmissions made of? ›

The transmission is made up of gears, output shafts, and input shafts. Gears of one shaft engage the gears from the other shafts. When using a manual transmission, a gear is selected by moving the shift lever.

What is types of transmission line? ›

The types of transmission lines are: Overhead Transmission Lines. Subtransmission Lines. Underground Transmission Lines.

Which wire is used in transmission line? ›

The most common conductor in use for transmission today is aluminum conductor steel reinforced (ACSR). Also seeing much use is all-aluminum-alloy conductor (AAAC). Aluminum is used because it has about half the weight and lower cost of a comparable resistance copper cable.

How many types of transmission lines are there? ›

Two common types of transmission line are coaxial line (Figure 3.2. 1) and microstrip line (Figure 3.2. 2). Both are examples of transverse electromagnetic (TEM) transmission lines.

What is the color of transmission fluid? ›

Many vehicle fluids have been dyed for easy identification, and transmission fluid is no exception. Newer transmission fluid is a translucent dark red color, but over time, it will become even darker through use.

What causes transmission line to break? ›

Causes of Transmission Fluid Leaks

Over time, road debris and heat can cause the transmission fluid lines to crack or break, which can cause fluid to leak out. Another reason for lost fluid is your vehicle's torque pump has become cracked or an axle seal has been compromised.

Why is my transmission line leaking? ›

Transmission cooling lines leaking means either low-level of fluid or interrupted flow in the transmission. In both cases, the result is an overheated transmission that may stop functioning if the condition persists. Sometimes, it is difficult to spot the leak at the initial stage.

What is SAG limit? ›

The maximum sag (dip) is represented by the value of y at either of the support points. At support point A, x = l/2 and y = S (sag) therefore, sag S = w(l/2)2 / 2T. therefore, sag S = w.l2/8T.

What is the unit of SAG? ›

In a transmission line, sag is defined as the vertical difference in level between points of support (most commonly transmission towers) and the lowest point of the conductor. The calculation of sag and tension in a transmission line depends on the span of the overhead conductor.

What is corona loss in transmission line? ›

There is a hissing noise with violet glow phenomenon termed as corona effect which is commonly observed in high voltage transmission lines. The corona effects leads to high voltage drop and energy loss along with release of ozone gas.

Which relay is used for long transmission line? ›

Mho Relay: The relay which is selected for long transmission lines should be less affected due to power swings. Hence Mho relay is preferred.

Why do transmission lines use high voltage? ›

High voltage transmission lines deliver electricity over long distances. The high voltage is required to reduce the amount of energy lost during the distance. Unlike other energy sources such as natural gas, electricity can't be stored when it is not used. If demand exceeds supply, a blackout occurs.

What type of insulation is used in transmission lines? ›

The commonly used material for manufacturing the insulators of overhead transmission line is porcelain. Although, glass, polymer and steatite and many other special composition materials are also used for manufacturing the overhead line insulators.

How much should a transmission service cost? ›

While it always depends on the vehicle, most transmission services are between $100.00 to $300.00.

Is a transmission service necessary? ›

Over time your transmission fluid degrades and stops cleaning and protecting the hundreds of moving parts. You may notice hard shifting, slipping or chattering when this happens. A transmission service is a factory recommended maintenance item, just like changing the oil or rotating the tires.

How much does a full transmission service cost? ›

The exact transmission cost will vary, based on your particular vehicle and your service department of choice, but you can expect to pay in the ballpark of $1,800 and $3,400 for brand new parts – and don't forget about the labor costs, which can run between $79 and $189.

How often does transmission fluid need to be changed? ›

If you drive manual, most manufacturers will recommend changing your transmission fluid every 30,000 to 60,000 miles. If you have automatic, you can typically boost that range up to 60,000 to 100,000 miles. There's no harm in changing your fluid early.

What causes transmission issues? ›

Transmission failure can be caused by slipping, symptomatic noises, lack of fluid due to leaks, overheating, or outside factors that affect the transmission.

How do you check transmission level? ›

Check the Level

With the engine warmed up, leave the car idling in park on a level surface. Pull out the dipstick, wipe it clean, replace it slowly, and then pull it back out. Check the fluid level—how high the fluid comes up on the dipstick—against the "full" and "low" or "fill" marks on the dipstick.

What is a transmission used for? ›

The job of a car's transmission is to make sure that the right amount of power goes to your wheels to drive at a given speed. It works by shifting gears in a very similar fashion to what you see on a multi-speed bicycle.

What is transmission repair? ›

Also known as “rebuilding a transmission”, a complete overhaul involves the removal and disassembly of the transmission in its entirety. Every part is inspected for wear and damage, then cleaned in a special cleaning solution, or replaced with another part depending on its condition.

How do you fix transmission problems? ›

How to Fix Transmission Shifting Problems in Your Car (Fluid Change)

What Colour is transmission fluid? ›

Many vehicle fluids have been dyed for easy identification, and transmission fluid is no exception. Newer transmission fluid is a translucent dark red color, but over time, it will become even darker through use.

How long should transmission fluid last? ›

Your transmission fluid can be in service for 10 years or longer if the car is hardly ever driven. Continuously variable transmissions, or CVTs, are another animal altogether. They are unlike any other type of transmission.

How do I know when my transmission is bad? ›

What Are the Transmission Failure Symptoms?
  1. Refusal to Switch Gears. If your vehicle refuses or struggles to change gears, you are more than likely facing a problem with your transmission system. ...
  2. Burning Smell. ...
  3. Noises When in Neutral. ...
  4. Slipping Gears. ...
  5. Dragging Clutch. ...
  6. Leaking Fluid. ...
  7. Check Engine Light. ...
  8. Grinding or Shaking.
16 Mar 2017

How do you remove transmission fluid? ›

How To Remove ALL The Old Transmission Fluid In Your Car

What happens if u dont change transmission fluid? ›

Particles and debris are flushed out when you change the fluid on a vehicle. If you don't ever drain your transmission fluid, these will remain circulating in the transmission. Although they may not damage the transmission itself, they actually allow the transmission to shift properly as the miles accumulate.

Does changing transmission fluid improve performance? ›

Though changing transmission fluid can't fix mechanical problems, it does make for smoother shifts and can extend the life of your transmission. And even when manufacturers recommend fluid change intervals of 150,000 miles under normal conditions, it may be a good idea to change it more frequently.

Can changing transmission fluid cause problems? ›

Fresh transmission fluid has good cleaning properties. This can wash away varnish from the clutch pack, causing clutch slippage. While Flushing the transmission with a machine can damage aging seals, which can cause leakage and hydraulic problems.

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