Here’s Why PS5 Joysticks Drift (and Why They’ll Only Get Worse) | iFixit News (2023)

Mere months have passed since the PS5’s hotly anticipated launch, and already there’s a class-action lawsuit brewing over joystick drift on Sony’s high-tech DualSense controllers. Who could have seen this coming? Well, as it turns out, everyone. Everyone should have seen this coming. Because for all its exciting new tech, the DualSense uses off-the-shelf joystick hardware with a long history of predictable, preventable issues. And now we’ve investigated those issues in excruciating detail.

Like the PlayStation 5 itself, the DualSense controller feels like a device brought back from the near-future. It has new adaptive triggers and advanced haptic feedback. Deeper inside, however, are joystick modules that could have been held over from when Seinfeld was on the air. In some ways they’re actually less sophisticated than certain joystick technology available in the late 1990s.

Sony isn’t the only company to use off-the-shelf joystick modules, but, like Microsoft, they’ve made it difficult to repair this consumable component. Joysticks have a known life expectancy—it’s listed right in a product sheet from the manufacturer. It’s predictable they would fail, which makes you wonder if it’s a willful cost-saving calculation on the console makers’ part to not offer more reliable, or replaceable, sticks.

Let’s head inside a DualSense controller to see what is failing, and how.

The potentiometer problem

Here’s Why PS5 Joysticks Drift (and Why They’ll Only Get Worse) | iFixit News (1)

We gave a detailed blow-by-blow of the controller disassembly in our PS5 teardown, so here we’ll zoom right in on the joysticks. Unlike the buttons and analog directional pad, the DualSense thumbsticks sit directly atop the main controller board.

Here’s Why PS5 Joysticks Drift (and Why They’ll Only Get Worse) | iFixit News (2)

The joystick modules themselves are manufactured by Alps—a name familiar to anyone who has fallen down a deep keyboard hole, or struggled with a trackpad driver. The Japanese company (formerly Alps Electric, now Alps Alpine) specializes in input and sensing devices.

(Video) Here's Why PS5 Joysticks Drift (and Why They'll Only Get Worse)

Tempting as it may be to blame Alps for the PS5’s drifting issues, they probably aren’t the villain of this story—because, brand name notwithstanding, this joystick module looks extremely familiar. You may already recognize it from the prior-gen PlayStation’s controller, the DualShock 4. Or from the Xbox One controllers. Maybe the Nintendo Switch Pro controller. Or, somewhat confusingly, the $180 Xbox One Elite controller. Underneath that plastic cap, the dirty secret is that they all use the same joystick hardware.

Getting a closer look requires a significant amount of effort. Both joystick modules are soldered to the controller board, with 16 solder joints apiece—including two wires to remove, for the haptic motors on each side.

Here’s Why PS5 Joysticks Drift (and Why They’ll Only Get Worse) | iFixit News (3)

You’re not getting these joysticks out without soldering gear: at minimum an iron, flux, a desoldering braid and/or solder sucker, and patience. Or you could cover up all the other components with high-temperature tape, heat up a whole pot of solder, and dip it in for the win. We went a more traditional route, blasting it with hot air until the solder gave way.

Here’s Why PS5 Joysticks Drift (and Why They’ll Only Get Worse) | iFixit News (4)

With the entire joystick module removed, we can pry it apart and survey what’s inside.

Here’s Why PS5 Joysticks Drift (and Why They’ll Only Get Worse) | iFixit News (5)

Each of these seafoam covers houses a potentiometer—that’s two per joystick, set perpendicular to each other. One potentiometer senses up/down movement, and the other left/right.

To understand the part they play, it’s helpful to know how a potentiometer goes about the business of measuring position. You start with a strip of material with a known, uniform resistance value—that is, how hard it tries to stop an electric current running through it. Put one terminal at each end, so you can apply a known voltage across the entire strip. Now add a third terminal, called a wiper, that slides back and forth along the strip. The voltage reading at the wiper changes predictably based on the wiper’s location—closer to one terminal or the other, or right in between.

Here’s Why PS5 Joysticks Drift (and Why They’ll Only Get Worse) | iFixit News (6)
(Video) Sony May Have Quietly Fixed PS5 Dualsense Stick Drift

The potentiometers in the DualSense joysticks work like that, except instead of moving back and forth in a straight line, the wiper races around a semicircular track made of printed carbon film. When you move the joystick with your thumb, it rotates two little shafts, one connected to each wiper. The wipers translate their positions into voltage values, which the controller reads to determine the joystick’s position and movement.

Here’s Why PS5 Joysticks Drift (and Why They’ll Only Get Worse) | iFixit News (7)

There are two other noteworthy components in the modern joystick. One is a spring that returns your joystick to a centered, neutral position when you let go. The other is the push-in button action that many controllers offer on their thumbsticks.

Here’s Why PS5 Joysticks Drift (and Why They’ll Only Get Worse) | iFixit News (8)

Knowing what we know about who made this thing and how it works, let’s move onto where it doesn’t work.

Why Drift Happens

Here’s Why PS5 Joysticks Drift (and Why They’ll Only Get Worse) | iFixit News (9)

Who knows the particulars of the PS5 joysticks better than the company that makes them? Let’s take a look at Alps’ spec sheet for the RKJXV series, a ThumbPointer™ (Stick Controller) made for “Game” purposes. Search around eBay and other shopping sites, and you’ll see variants of this model number listed alongside many PlayStation, Xbox, and Switch Pro Controller joystick replacements. Right on page one of the product sheet is the operating life for the RKJXV’s potentiometers: 2,000,000 cycles.

One of our teardown engineers measured their own Call of Duty: Modern Warfare (2019) controller interactions for back-of-the-envelope joystick life math. Averaging ten different 30-second intervals, they made roughly 100 full potentiometer rotations per minute. If you play a less stick-intensive game than a first-person shooter, rotating 80 times per minute, you’ll hit 2,000,000 rotations in 25,000 minutes, or 417 hours—that’s just 209 days, playing 2 hours per day. At a more kinetic 120 rotations per minute, that’s 139 days at 2 hours per day. So Alps’ own rating for accurate joystick measurements is, in one gamer’s hypothetical experience, 4-7 months—and that’s with a very non-pandemic 2-hour cap on your game time.

That doesn’t necessarily mean your joystick will drift at that point—it could fail earlier, or keep working fine for much longer. But nothing lasts forever, and potentiometers are no exception. Here’s why.

(Video) The Good And Bad News About PS5 Controller Drift

1. Sensor wear

The first potential cause of drift is the hardest to avoid: wear to the potentiometers. Over time, the wiper scrubbing back and forth against the resistive pad creates imperfections, altering the voltage readings across the terminals—think of a skipping record or scratched CD. It’s worth noting that, while the Switch’s infamously drifty Joy-Con sticks look quite different internally, with wipers moving across flat pads instead of circular tracks, they can fail in exactly the same way: wear to the pads, resulting in incorrect readings.

2. Spring fatigue

Let’s not lay all the blame at the feet of these little resistors, though. In order to work, they have to measure joystick movements from a consistent, neutral starting point. As you move your joystick around, the spring-loaded self-centering mechanism can stretch slightly, creating a new “neutral” point. In this scenario, the potentiometers can still accurately read the relative position of the joystick, but that position is objectively incorrect.

3. Material stretching

That’s not to say that plastic stretching throughout the joystick isn’t a factor. You are, after all, constantly pushing joysticks against their limits, sometimes quite hard, whether drifting in Forza or stressfully racing the clock in Overcooked. We suspect this contributes more to a “looseness” in joystick pointing, rather than consistent slow-walking drift.

4. Grime, dust, moisture, and other gunk

Finally, there’s the boogeyman we’ve all been trying to ward off since the days of NES cartridges: contamination. For instance, the constant plastic-on-plastic grind of gaming creates plastic dust that can accumulate inside the joystick mechanism. Most modern controllers use self-lubricating plastics for smoother action. Self-lubricating ultimately means self-degrading; they work in part by sacrificing minute amounts of their own material.

We and others have had some success eliminating drift by cleaning out the potentiometer internals with compressed air, contact cleaner, and/or isopropyl alcohol. Often, though, without a full removal and reassembly, you’re just displacing dust, not removing it. It can wander back into your stick, while you continue generating more of it.

Then there’s contamination from the external world. Potentiometers are vulnerable to extreme temperatures, humidity, oxidation/corrosion, and yes, small particles. Your house is not a cleanroom.

Attempted fixes, including calibration, and why they only sometimes work

If you don’t want to solder, there are plenty of YouTube videos demonstrating purported drifty joystick fixes that don’t require heat—just a lot of patience, and sometimes fine motor skills. You could, for example, pry off the housings of the potentiometers and either clean or replace the rotating wiper. Or you might try carefully cleaning both the wiper and its graphite track. Some folks have tried physically twisting the potentiometer hardware ever so slightly in order to offset slightly incorrect position readings.

(Video) PS5 Controllers Are Drifting And Failing, And Getting Them Fixed Is A Nightmare

Here’s Why PS5 Joysticks Drift (and Why They’ll Only Get Worse) | iFixit News (12)

Some consoles, and even some games, offer joystick or dead zone calibration, which can help put a band-aid on many of these issues. But there are a few problems with software calibration:

  • Calibration can help if you have a consistent, uni-directional issue with your joystick’s centering mechanism (return spring). It won’t fix general “looseness” or a worn-out spot on a potentiometer.
  • The fix for some kinds of looseness is a “dead zone” calibration. This makes games ignore minor movements of the stick. But if the problem worsens, you have to expand the dead zone to compensate, making finer joystick control impossible.
  • Contamination is, as you might expect, not something that software can work around.

Then there’s the class of fixes that do require soldering, and even here the situation scarcely improves. Brand-new joysticks right from the factory are known for having a lot of variance in the resistance values in their individual potentiometers, which requires… you guessed it, software calibration at the factory. That calibration profile is stored on the controller board, not in the joystick itself. Without the factory calibration tool, brand-new replacement joysticks can—ahem—drift. Undeterred by this, heroic fixers have devised one tedious workaround after another. Suffice to say, these things could be a lot easier to fix.

The real fix is better choices by console makers

If you’re experiencing drift on your controller, you have three real options: Fix it (either yourself or through an experienced tech), send the controller back to the manufacturer and wait for a fix (if it’s warrantied/covered), or buy a new one. It’s bizarre to us that the console makers, who spend countless thousands of hours obsessing over their controller designs, don’t just concede that joysticks are consumable parts, and design them as such to be more easily replaced.

No device, rated for 2,000,000 cycles, especially a vessel of frustration or obsession, can maintain perfect performance forever. They should be designed with that reality in mind. Nintendo, for all its extended silence on Joy-Con drift failures, at least chose an easily replaceable joystick secured by Phillips screws and a flexible cable, not 16 solder joints. And even if a joystick needs the stability of solder beneath it, it’s possible to design a “breakout board,” such as we often see on phones and other portable devices. A smaller circuit board would hold the joystick and its necessary wires and chips, then connect to the main board with a detachable cable.

That’s just the obvious stuff. You could dream bigger and design pin sockets for the controller module, like the kind seen on the ErgoDox keyboard. Even better: a modular controller like the Astro, which doesn’t look much bulkier than other modern controllers, but features no-solder-needed swap-able parts. Just try and convince us that console companies couldn’t make a mint selling limited edition themed controller parts.

Here’s Why PS5 Joysticks Drift (and Why They’ll Only Get Worse) | iFixit News (13)

Console makers could also choose more reliable joystick hardware in the first place. The Dreamcast, circa 1999, used Hall Effect sensors in its controllers. The magnets could wear out over a very long timeline, but magnets are also replaceable. Inside the N64’s center joystick were optical sensors that read input much like an older ball mouse. The joystick itself was susceptible to physical sag and leaning, but the sensors were likely still reading true.

(Video) Sony Already Sued Over PlayStation 5 Drift

In the end, then, the real culprits of drift are humans, and profits. These controllers are cheaper to produce up-front, but more expensive to fix when they fail. Perhaps gaming companies can’t reconcile the obvious truth that joysticks fail with the image of their technology as immaculate, bleeding-edge, a completely seamless entertainment experience. But we think most people would prefer to be a bit more realistic about something as unglamorous as a thumbstick. It beats mailing out a controller, or buying another $70 controller to replace an 88-cent part.

Note: We reached out to Alps Alpine, Sony, and Nintendo for comment on this post; we did not hear back before publishing.

FAQs

Why does my PS5 controller keep getting stick drift? ›

Like all joysticks, PS5 DualSense controllers work less efficiently over time. The most common PS5 controller drifting issues are caused by physical damage, simple wear and tear due to regular use, debris build up, and out-of-date software.

Why is controller drift so common? ›

A common reason for why controllers run into drift problems is that they are prone to deterioration, which will naturally occur with use. In more recent years, the life cycle of technology has shortened dramatically to promote further purchases, thereby further exacerbating the issue.

How long does a PS5 controller last before stick drift? ›

The PlayStation 5 DualSense controller isn't made to last. An investigation by iFixit has claimed that the life expectancy of the DualSense controller is far shorter than many would hope. Far shorter.

Why is the PS5 controller so dirty? ›

It also has a textured back, attracting more grime and filth. Playing on the PS5 is quite an experience, and the fun and anxiety it brings can make your body sweat. Sweaty fingers leave moisture, which attracts dirt, necessitating that you know how to clean a PS5 controller.

Does PS5 have a stick drift problem? ›

Since the release of the PS5, owners of the console have noticed an unfortunate defect with the DualSense controller. Like the DualShock 4 that shipped with the PS4, the PS5 controller appears to suffer from drifting. If your DualSense is drifting, here are a few things you can try to solve the problem.

How do I permanently fix my drift controller? ›

No parts specified.
  1. Step 1 How to Fix Xbox One Wireless Controller Drift. ...
  2. Pour 70% isopropyl alcohol on the tip of a cotton ball. ...
  3. Rub the cotton ball all along the edges of the thumbstick. ...
  4. Let the controller dry for 40-60 seconds. ...
  5. Connect your controller and see if there are any drift stick problems on any game.

What controller has the least stick drift? ›

GuliKit KingKong 2 PRO Controller is the first controller with electromagnetic joystick in the world to solve drifting completely.
...
  • Optimize the joystick's algorithm to have faster response.
  • Strengthen the triggers's tability.
  • Fine-tune the power management strategy.

Do Pro controllers suffer from drift? ›

Drifting is a problem that is undeniably common in the Switch's Joy-Con, but it can also affect Pro Controllers as well. That's not to say Nintendo's products are cheap or shoddy universally; drift is an issue that can affect any controller on the market – even the mighty Xbox One Elite Controller isn't safe.

What is the lifespan of a PS5 controller? ›

Sony's PS5 DualSense controller issues have been outlined in a new video in which the working lifetime of the hardware is estimated.

Does PS5 warranty cover stick drift? ›

The PlayStation 5 DualSense controller is under warranty for one year after the purchase of it or the PS5 it came with - as long as it's under warranty, you can contact Sony and request your controller to be serviced.

How long will a PS5 last? ›

The life-cycle of the PlayStation 5 should last for “six to seven years,” according to Sony's Masayasu Ito, who was interviewed by Game Informer as part of a big feature about the first 25 years of the PlayStation brand.

Does the PS5 need to be cleaned? ›

Dust and debris are two things that can choke and overheat the PS5 console. If you fail to clean the PS5 console from dust, then air won't be able to circulate effectively within the console. Likewise, the fans inside won't be able to do their jobs properly. To Avoid Malfunctioning.

How can I clean my PS5 without opening it? ›

It's also important to recommend that you make sure your PS5 is turned off and unplugged before you start cleaning, for safety. Sony recommends that you remove dust from the air vents by using a low-powered vacuum cleaner. This you can do without removing the faceplate.

What is so cool about the PS5 controller? ›

The DualSense is a standout feature of the PlayStation 5, offering intense haptic feedback and trigger buttons with adjustable tension. This adds a layer of immersion to games from Deathloop to Stray to Astro's Playroom, and it's something that Xbox simply doesn't offer.

How common is ps5 stick drift? ›

It's a common problem in all controllers. Even though controllers are getting better with time thanks to newer and newer technology, the problem has unfortunately persisted. Analog stick drift can occur even if you don't press any buttons.

What is the easiest way to fix stick drift? ›

Apply isopropyl alcohol to a cotton swab. Pry back the thumbstick, and carefully wipe the rounded surface with alcohol. Rotate the thumbstick incrementally, carefully cleaning the entire thing. Check to make sure that you've fully cleaned the thumbstick, and test operation.

Does gamestop fix drift stick? ›

A: Yes , drifting is a highly common isssue with all Nintendo switch joy-con but nintendo has a policy in place to repair if your request through their customer service for a fix free of charge.

How do I get rid of drift in PS5? ›

To fix PS5 DualSense Controller analog stick drift, users should:
  1. Ensure that their controller is fully updated. ...
  2. Clean the controller. ...
  3. Restore the analog sticks. ...
  4. Use Deadzone functions in certain games. ...
  5. Reset the controller and then reconnect it to your PS5.
1 Jun 2022

Does wd40 help controller drift? ›

Use WD-40 Multi-Use Product and WD-40 Specialist. Contact Cleaner to fix game console joystick drift. easily!

Can you get rid of controller drift? ›

Compressed air should help clear out any debris that's causing controller drift. One important tip: Always keep the can level when spraying the joysticks as turning it sideways could send moisture into your controller and cause further damage.

What controller lasts the longest? ›

Far and away the longest lasting of the bunch is the Xbox 360's wireless controller. Although, like the Wii remote, it's not rechargeable, the 360's controller was able to run for nearly 60 hours on a single pair of Duracell AA batteries.

Which controller has best thumbsticks? ›

The best thumbstick controller is the Thrustmaster Eswap Pro X. Expect to pay $149.99 USD/ £149.99 GBP. Thrustmaster's Eswap Pro X is a premium gamepad through and through, but its modular design makes it one of the most versatile devices on this list.

How long do pro controllers last? ›

When fully charged, the battery duration for the Nintendo Switch Pro Controller can last approximately 40 hours. This can be shorter depending on the software application and functions being used.

Can dropping a controller cause stick drift? ›

Analog stick drift can also be caused by damage to your controller, either from someone dropping it or excessive wear and tear. A poor wireless connection or software issue could force your controller to behave abnormally as well.

What causes joy drift? ›

Joy-Con drift can often be attributed to one of two major factors: software/hardware issues or buildup of dirt and grime under or around the thumb sticks. Keep your head in the game. We'll handle the repairs. Make an appointment at your nearest store now for game console repair.

Did they fix the ps5 controller? ›

With its new models, Sony has quietly updated the PS5 DualSense controller. The most recent line of DualSense pads have some slight upgrades – and new parts could mean less stick drift.

Do the new ps5 controllers have better battery life? ›

While the PlayStation 5's DualSense controller features improved battery life over the PlayStation 4's DualShock 4, it's still not amazing. That means it's possible for your controller battery to die in the middle of an important gaming moment.

Is stick drift covered by warranty? ›

Stick drift was covered under the warranty for controllers, and Microsoft only replaces your controller, they will not repair your controller. Was this reply helpful?

Does controller warranty cover stick drift? ›

The following elements are covered by the lifetime warranty:

Controller buttons and analogue bases (Controller's Stick drift is covered up to 90 days from the delivery day) Smart triggers and smart bumpers. AIM paddles.

Which console has the longest lifespan? ›

5 Consoles That Lasted The Longest (& 5 That Lasted The Shortest)
  • 6/10 Longest: Atari 2600 (1977 - 1982)
  • 5/10 Shortest: Dreamcast (1999 - 2001)
  • 4/10 Longest: NES (1983 - 2003)
  • 3/10 Shortest: Gizmondo (2005 - 2006)
  • 2/10 Longest: Master System (1986 - Present)
  • 1/10 Shortest: Virtual Boy (1995 - 1995)
11 Jan 2020

Will there be a PS6? ›

The PS6 doesn't look likely to launch until at least 2028, according to official documents and speculation that has been made around them.

How long is PS5 future proof? ›

The PS5 is more "future proof" because it won't be replaced until 2027 with the PS6, or perhaps a PS5 Pro in 2025. The laptop won't die, but it will be replaced by faster AND cheaper alternatives.

What can you not do with PS5? ›

9 Things You Should Avoid Doing With Your PlayStation 5
  • Never Leave Your PS5 Running Without Activating Rest Mode/Shutting Down. ...
  • Don't Turn Your PS5 Off During an Update. ...
  • Refrain From Disabling the Auto-Update Option. ...
  • Avoid Inserting Discs the Wrong Way. ...
  • Don't Leave Unused Discs in the Drive... ...
  • 6. ...
24 Feb 2022

Can I use alcohol to clean my PS5? ›

Liquids like soapy water can seep inside the console and damage electrical components. Isopropyl alcohol has an evaporative nature which makes it safer to use on your PS5. Since it dissipates quickly, it reduces the risk of damage to any electrical parts.

How do I keep my PS5 healthy? ›

So if such problems persist after following our tips, get a professional assessment of your system.
  1. Check That the PS5 Fan Is Spinning. ...
  2. Remove the Covers and Vacuum the Ports. ...
  3. Check Your Ventilation Space. ...
  4. Put Your PS5 on the Right Surface. ...
  5. Control Your Room Temperature. ...
  6. Expansion SSD Overheating Issues.
31 Aug 2022

What cleans dust out of PS5? ›

Once you've located any dust deposits, use compressed air to remove these or a low-powered vacuum. If this doesn't work, try using a microfiber cloth dipped in isopropyl alcohol and wipe gently – only use as little as you need. Check the fins along PS5's sides and inspect the front ports too for any dust deposits.

Why does PS5 overheat? ›

Gaming for five hours or longer could cause the system to get too hot, so waiting a while for your PS5 to cool down again before resuming could be enough to fix your problem. If not, some more exploration may be required to discover why your console is overheating. 2. Make sure that the fan is pushing out hot air.

Does the PS5 have a dust filter? ›

When there are stains or dust, can directly wipe it, making the PS5 console is always as clean as new. Easy installation: peel the dust filter off and stick it to the inside of the vents. lift the protective cover where the PS5 logo is located, and release the circular buckle.

Are new PS5 controllers improved? ›

(Pocket-lint) - Sony smartly announced an upgraded version of its PS5 controller in late August 2022, called the DualSense Edge. The upgraded pad offers some nice benefits compared to a regular DualSense, so if you're in the market for a new controller you'll likely want to know the difference between the two versions.

Are there any good PS5 controllers? ›

If you're looking for a premium PS5 controller, look no further than the Scuf Reflex. The DualSense is undoubtedly the best PS5 controller and arguably Sony's coolest controller to date. So right out of the box, you already have the best controller for PlayStation 5.

Is stick drift covered by warranty PS5? ›

The PlayStation 5 DualSense controller is under warranty for one year after the purchase of it or the PS5 it came with - as long as it's under warranty, you can contact Sony and request your controller to be serviced.

Can you replace joystick on PS5? ›

Both joystick modules are soldered to the controller board, with 16 solder joints apiece—including two wires to remove, for the haptic motors on each side. You're not getting these joysticks out without soldering gear: at minimum an iron, flux, a desoldering braid and/or solder sucker, and patience.

Can you fix a controller with stick drift? ›

Use compressed air to clean out any dust and debris that might have gotten stuck in the joystick modules. You can also use a cotton swab slightly damp with Isopropyl rubbing alcohol to clean it out. Just make sure you let the alcohol completely dry before putting the controller back together.

What causes stick drift? ›

If your character or the camera keeps moving when you're not touching the controller, the problem's source is likely analog stick drift. PS4 controller drift can be due to one of two things: The analog stick is dirty. The analog stick or the potentiometer is damaged.

How common is PS5 stick drift? ›

It's a common problem in all controllers. Even though controllers are getting better with time thanks to newer and newer technology, the problem has unfortunately persisted. Analog stick drift can occur even if you don't press any buttons.

Does Sony fix PS5 without warranty? ›

Does Sony Fix The PS5 Without Warranty? No, Sony does not provide repairs for PS5 consoles unless they are under warranty. If your console is under warranty, returning it for a repair or replacement should not cost you anything.

Does putting a skin on PS5 void warranty? ›

Those gamers who have secured a PlayStation 5 despite the continued stock shortages may now choose from various new covers to alter the console's appearance. But now we know for sure that changing the look of your PS5 won't void the warranty.

Videos

1. Report Reveals PS5 DualSense Controller Major Design Flaw.. and it's Shocking!
(Foxy Games UK)
2. Cause of PS5 Controller's Joystick Drift Revealed?! | 8-Bit Eric
(8BE)
3. BIG PS5 Problem: PS5 DualSense Controller Drift
(PAB Games)
4. HOW to FIND out if your PS5 controller has stick drift
(kevOzilla)
5. How to Fix a PS5 DualSense controller! Fix drift and More! PS5 News!
(TwistedGamingTV)
6. Are PS5 Controllers Drifting And Failing Already?
(FornaTRON)
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