Guide To Brick Dimensions, Types & Bonds - archisoup | Architecture Guides & Resources (2023)

Standard brick dimensions:

For quick reference in a hurry:

UK – 215 mm in length by 102.5 mm width by 65 mm height.

US – 8 in. (203mm) length by 3 58 in. (92mm) width by 2 14 in. (57mm) height

Australia – 230mm length by 110 mm width by 76mm height

Guide To Brick Dimensions, Types & Bonds - archisoup | Architecture Guides & Resources (1)

For further information and a detailed breakdown on brick dimensions, sizes, types and bonds continue reading:

What is a brick?

Bricks are building materials that are used to form various parts of a building structure. Although they are mainly used to build walls, they can also be used in the construction of other building elements such as foundation, floors and even roofs. See El Cortijo House by Felipe Assadi Arquitectos for example.

A brief history

Bricks have been in use for millennia. The earliest record of bricks being used in building construction is from around 7,000 BC, where the bricks used were hand-molded from mud then dried in the sun.

The industrial revolution marked the mass production of bricks, making it a very popular building material, even replacing the stone.

This happened for two main reasons: bricks had become much cheaper than stone, and stone had already gained a reputation for being a notoriously difficult and unpredictable material to work with.

Over time, bricks have remained popular in the construction industry. Their constant use has paved the way for more sophisticated building features such as columns, fireplaces, arches, chimneys, among other structural designs.

This is largely due to their ease of use and the fact that they allow the designer to be more flexible and creative in designing uses for them. Bricks are also extremely strong, durable and have cheap maintenance costs. They can also be easily manipulated into interesting and complex structures.

In the recent past, with increased innovations in building technologies, other building material solutions have been developed, most of which make arguably better building alternatives.

It has often been argued that compared to these new alternatives, bricks have become time-consuming, structurally limiting, expensive and take up too much storage space and labour on-site.

However, bricks have also kept up with changing times. If you do not want to use a traditional brick, you could always opt for pre-fabricated brick panels, or newer slimmer profiled bricks, such as Petersen Bricks Kolumba brick.

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What are bricks made of?

Today, bricks are made from a number of materials like clay, concrete and calcium silicate. Of these, clay is the oldest material, having being used as the primary component in brick making for thousands of years.

How are bricks made?

There are several ways through which bricks can be manufactured.

There are the soft mud and dry press brick manufacture processes, which both start with curing the clay that will be used in the process.

As the name soft mud suggests, the bricks are made out of a thin mix of mud. On the other hand, dry press bricks use a thicker mud mix that results in a crisper definition. The greater the force applied in pressing the brick in the mold, the stronger the brick becomes.

Firing the bricks for a long time also makes them stronger.

There are also extruded bricks which are made through pushing the brick mixture through a die. This creates an extrusion, which is cut with a wire producing bricks according to the desired length.

Bricks can also either be compact solid or be perforated to reduce the amount of filler material used.

They could also have indentations on their surfaces (either on one side or both), this feature is called a frog.

The frog is filled with mortar during construction when they are laid.

The manufacturing techniques could also be used to categorize bricks. Here we have two categories of bricks: machine-made bricks and handmade bricks.

Machine made bricks:

If you want a cleaner and smoother finish on your bricks, this is the best option. These bricks have more uniform shapes and are also cheaper compared to their handmade counterparts.

Handmade bricks:

These bricks are more expensive because they have a rougher texture, an attractive creased face, and they also account for the physical effort put in while processing the brick. The bricks could also come in a range of sizes and colors.

Special bricks

The following are some of the special bricks that are made for particular circumstances.

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1. Radial, arch or tapered bricks.

2. Angle bricks which form returns and chamfers

3. Capping and copping bricks

4. Plinth bricks 5. Sill bricks

6. Bullnose bricks

7. Soldier bricks- they form returns to soldier courses

8. Brick slips used for cladding

There are also Engineering Bricks, which have high strength, good acid resistance, and low water absorption. These are used in civil engineering applications.

Bricks can be cut to size to suit the function they are being applied for in the project.

Brick dimensions

Bricks can be molded into different sizes and shapes according to set standards, preference or applications. Different countries follow different standard brick sizes and measurements/dimensions.

Large bricks are difficult to burn and are heavy, making them cumbersome during use. When using large bricks in construction projects, masons find it hard to handle them with one hand. A lot of strength is therefore used up in heavy lifting at the expense of speedy work.

Conversely, if the bricks are too small, a lot of mortar is required, which is uneconomical. Usually, the standard dimension is set for various brickworks. The actual/specific size is the real measurement of an individual brick.

The normal size includes the actual size and the width of the mortar at the joint between consecutive bricks. This standardization serves to strike a balance between speed and economy through the individual brick size.

Most bricks are also made in such a way that the real sizes fit in a 4-inch grid. This obeys the modules of other materials and fittings like doors, windows, wardrobes among others.

UK standard brick dimensions / size

There are a variety of brick sizes in the UK in accordance with the standards in use. The brick sizes have remained constant for quite a while.

The standard brick dimension in the UK is

215 mm in length, 102.5 mm width and 65 mm height.

The overall ratio for a standard brick is therefore 3:2:1.

Looking at the construction of a stretcher bond, the standard dimensions considering a standard mortar joint of 10mm, the stretcher bond’s dimensions will be 225 mm long and 75 mm high.

If the bricks are laid across each other, two widths (of 102.5 mm), and two mortar joints result to the same repeating unit which is same to the standard length of a brick, ie, 120 mm.

When the bricks are laid lengthways, 3 65 mm heights’ and 3 mortar joints result to the same repeating unit like the length of a single brick, ie 120 mm.

United States standard brick dimensions / size

The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) is liable for controlling the standard of modern bricks in the United States. The body has come up with the following standard sizes for bricks:

1. 8 in. (203 mm) length x 3 58 in. (92 mm) width x 2 14 in. (57 mm) height which is the standard size set for a normal brick.

2. the most common modular brick they use is 7 58 in. (194 mm) length x 3 58 in. (92 mm) width x 2 14 in. (57 mm) height.

3. The modular brick is used with a 3/8 in mortar is used to calculate the number of bricks in a given run because it is easy.

Australia standard brick dimensions / size

The standard brick size or the working size in Australia is 9.05 in. (230mm) length by 4.33 in. (110 mm) width by 3.00 in. (76mm) height as per the Australian Standard AS4455. However, some bricks have work sizes like;

1. 11.42 in. (290 mm) length by 3.54 in. (90 mm) width and 3.54 in. (90 mm) height (one square face)

2. 11.42 in. (290 mm) length by 3.54 in. (90 mm) width and (50mm) height

The above bricks are used in construction to bring certain aesthetic effects. Larger bricks promote more economical laying, and they can also be combined with smaller bricks for design purposes.

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Other key brick dimensions

In areas that are prone to cyclones, larger bricks measuring 11.42 in. (290 mm) length by 5.51 in (140 mm) width and 3.54 in. (90 mm) height can also be used.

Hollow bricks are used because of the reinforcement done by grouting.

Wider 5.51 in. (140 mm) bricks could also be used for walls that need a lower sound transmission, high load-bearing capacity and high fire resistance.

Generally, the specific properties needed on a wall will influence the work sizes of bricks used.

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Brick Standards

In the UK, bricks are graded under British Standards. These standards ensure the bricks meet the necessary criteria such as water absorption, strength, frost protection among others.

All bricks are made in accordance with standards like EN771-1 which advocates that all external works should be classified as extremely exposed to the risk of frost attack. For this reason, all designs and builds should be done accordingly.

Clay bricks are prone to freeze-thaw. You are advised to choose a brick of minimum rating F’. F1 is for bricks prone to moderate exposure to elements, a good example are bricks under the eaves. F2 is the highest, it represents bricks that are resistant under severe exposure to saturation and freezing.

Mortars should also conform to the requirements as of BS EN 998-2, for factory-made mortar, if they are site batched, refer to BS1996-1-1, Eurocode 6. These standards define properties like strength.

Brick bonds

There are many ways to lay bricks. They can be laid as soldiers (upright), stretchers (lengthwise), and headers (width-wise along the wall). The mortar used in the joints bonds the bricks together. The profiles can be manipulated depending on the exposure or specific visual effect.

The most common profiles are bucket handle, weather struck, recessed, weather struck and cut, and flush (rag joint).

There are many standard bond patterns, including;

1. English bond, which has alternating courses of headers and stretchers.

2. Stretcher bond has each stretcher offset by half a brick. The half brick is relative to the course above and below. This style is common in the UK.

3. American common bond. It is similar to English bond but has only one course of headers in every 6 stretcher courses.

4. English cross bond. It has alternating courses of headers and stretchers. The alternating stretcher course is offset by half a brick.

5. Flemish bond with alternating headers and stretchers in every course.

6. Sussex bond-it has three stretchers and one course of headers.

7. Garden wall box- it has one course of headers against three courses of stretchers.

8. Header bond- headers are offset by half a brick.

9. Stack bond- bricks are laid directly on top of each other, with aligned joints. These bonds are weak. Reinforcement is fundamental in such an arrangement.

Designing with brick dimensions

Many manufacturers produce bricks according to their own specifications. It is important that you look at their specification tables so that you confirm sizes before you make a purchase.

Understanding brick dimensions and sizes

It is important to understand different brick sizes to avoid any confusion. There are three different dimensions:

1. Specified

2. Actual

3. Nominal

Specified brick dimensions:

These are the brick dimensions that architects use when they design walls. They are the anticipated manufacturer’s dimensions of a single brick without considering the mortar joint size. It is often included in the architect’s drawings and specifications. Specified brick dimensions are the only dimensions used in non-modular construction.

Actual brick dimensions:

These are the final brick measurements as they come out of manufacturing. They are always within certain tolerances of the specified size as spelt out in Standard Specification for Facing Brick, ASTM C216 and ASTM C652, Standard Specification for Hollow Brick. These tolerances vary with the size and type of brick. They do not affect the overall design because they are minimal.

Nominal brick dimensions:

These are mainly used for modular construction. Nominal brick dimensions include the specified size plus the size of the mortar. Bricks are made in a way that the nominal sizes fit into a 4” grid, this way, they coincide with other building materials and fittings such as windows, doors and other wood components like wardrobes.

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Architects’ Brick Selection

It is important for architects to understand brick dimensions and sizes because it helps them in detailing walls. Many architects tend to only select bricks based on colour and bond pattern. It is important to understand that the brick size is directly linked to the bond pattern and manufacturer’s specifics.

The mortar’s size does not usually affect the wall’s aesthetics. However, it is important when it comes to detailing. The size of the mortar will be affected by the size of the brick selected, which will directly affect the number of bricks that can be used and how they can be laid.

Mortar Joint Sizes

The most common mortar joint used in construction is 0.38 in. (9.53 mm). According to International Building Codes TMS 602, on the Specifications for Masonry Structures, the default size for mortar joints is 0.38 in. (9.53 mm). Always use your brick’s specified size when referring to this.

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FAQs

What is the size of a brick 3 dimensions? ›

The most popular brick size is a Modular brick measuring at 3-5/8" thick by 2-1/4" high and 7-5/8" long. Thin Brick are also available in many of the sizes listed below.

How do you read a brick size? ›

Standard bricks

The standard co-ordinating size for brickwork is 225 mm x 112.5 mm x 75 mm (length x depth x height). This includes 10 mm mortar joints, and so the standard size for a brick itself is 215 mm x 102.5 mm x 65 mm (length x depth x height).

What are the sizes of bricks? ›

Standard Brick Sizes by Country
CountryStandard Brick Size in Inches (D x H x L)
USA3 5/8 x 2 1/4 x 7 5/8
UK4 x 2 1/2 x 8 1/2
Australia3 x 4 1/3 x 9
India4 1/4 x 2 1/2 x 9
30 Jul 2021

What are the different types of bonds in bricks? ›

There are five basic structural bonds commonly used today which create typical patterns. These are: Running bond, common or American bond, Flemish bond, English bond and block or stack bond, as illustrated in Fig.

How many bricks are in a 10x10 wall? ›

768 no of bricks required for construction of 10 × 10 (100 sq ft) of 9 inch brick wall.

How do you calculate number of bricks? ›

For a singular layer brick wall, multiply the length of the wall by the height to get the area. Multiply that area by 60 to get the number of bricks you should need, then add 10% for wastage. That's the short answer and assumes 'standard' brick and mortar sizes. It can also vary based on the type of structure.

Is code for brick size? ›

Bricks Sizes as per Indian Standard (IS 1077)

The size of non-modular brick size is 230 x 110 x 70 mm or 230 x 110 x 30 (length x depth x height).

What is the size and weight of standard brick? ›

You can expect an average brick weight to be about 5 pounds (2.27 kg) for a standard red clay brick. The standard size measures to be 8-inch by 2 1/4-inch by 4-inch. Bricks are used as a building material for a variety of projects such as walls, fireplaces, patios, and walkways.

What is the nominal size of brick? ›

For India, a brick of standard size 190 mmx90 mm x 90 mm is recommended by the BIS. With mortar thickness, the size of such a brick becomes200 mm x 100 mm x 100 mmand it is known as the nominal size of the modular brick.

How many types of bricks are there? ›

There are three main types of bricks - facing bricks, engineering bricks and common bricks.

What is the standard of brick? ›

Standard Size of Brick In India

The standard Size of Brick in mm is 190 x 90 x 90 mm (Length x Width X Thickness). Standard Brick Dimensions Inches is 7.48 In X 3.54 In X 3.54 In (Length x Width X Thickness).

What is the height of brick? ›

In case you are wondering, a standard US brick size is 8 inches long x 3 5/8 inches wide x 2 1/4 inches high.

Which bond is strongest in brick? ›

The header Bond in brick is considered to be the strongest and widely used bond in masonry construction. Header means a shorter square span face of the brick which has dimensions 9cm x 9cm. The arrangement is such that it forms the strongest bonding between bricks, making it the strongest bond for bricks.

What is the strongest type of brick? ›

Class A engineering bricks are the strongest, but Class B are the more commonly used. Engineering bricks vary in colour from red to blue.

Which is the strongest bonding? ›

In chemistry, covalent bond is the strongest bond. In such bonding, each of two atoms shares electrons that binds them together. For example, water molecules are bonded together where both hydrogen atoms and oxygen atoms share electrons to form a covalent bond.

What is the cost of 1 brick? ›

Brick Prices by Volume
Amount of BricksCost RangeAverage Cost
Single Brick$0.50 – $0.60$0.55
Pallet$250 – $800$525
1,000$500 – $600$550

How many square feet is 1000 bricks? ›

How much square footage does 1000 bricks cover:- As we know coverage area of 1 brick is 0.222 sq ft or 32 square inches, we have to calculate coverage area for 1000 bricks in square footage, so coverage area of 1000 bricks in square footage = 0.222 × 1000= 222 sq ft, so 1000 bricks will cover 222 square footage area ...

How many bricks are in a 12x12 room? ›

For a 144 sq ft room (12x12 feet), you will need 1713 bricks to make a brick wall.

How do I calculate bricks in Excel? ›

HOW TO CALCULATE NUMBER OF BRICKS USING EXCEL - YouTube

What is the ratio of brick work? ›

1:6 ratio of mortar for brickwork which means cement:sand = 1 part of cement and 6 parts of sand.

What is the weight of 1 bricks? ›

The weight of 1 brick is 2 kg.

What is width of 1 brick wall? ›

In India, for house construction of residential/ commercial buildings, a standard thickness of brick wall should be kept around 9″ (230 mm) thick for the outer wall, 4.5 ” (120 mm) thick for the internal partition wall, and 3″ (80 mm) thick for cupboard and railing use.

What is thickness of normal wall? ›

Typically, the wall thickness will be in the range 0.5 mm to 4 mm. In specific cases, wall thicknesses that are either smaller or bigger also occur. A basic design guideline is to keep wall thicknesses as thin and as uniform as possible.

What is the weight of 500 bricks? ›

How much does 500 bricks weigh. As per US practices, 500 bricks weigh approximately 2,250 pounds or 1.125 tons. The average brick weighs around 4.5 pounds and measures 3-5/8″ x 2-1/4″ x 8″ in size, so weight of 500 nos bricks = 500 × 4.5 = 2, 250 pounds.

How do you calculate unit weight of brick? ›

Multiply the volume by the density to calculate the brick weight. In the example, the weight is 0.000768 cubic meters x 1,922 kilograms/cubic meter = 1.476 kilograms. Multiply the weight in kilograms by 2.204 to convert it to pounds. In the example, the brick weight is 2.204 x 1.476 = 3.253 pounds.

What is density of brick? ›

... value of bulk density for bricks that was made with clay is 1500 kg/m3 to 2000kg/m3.

How many bricks are in 1m3? ›

How much brick in 1 m3? The correct answer is that 1 m3 requires 500 bricks. For this, we know that the usual brick size is 19” x 9” x 9”, which becomes 20” x 10” x 10”, with mortar.

What is the actual size of brick in CM? ›

Detailed Solution. ∴ The actual size of the standard modular brick as per Indian Standards is 19 cm × 9 cm × 9 cm.

What size are engineering bricks? ›

These bricks are available in 65mm, 73mm and 80mm sizes.

What is another name for bricks? ›

What is another word for brick?
blockcake
ingotlump
piecestone
tabletcinder block
chunkhunk
226 more rows

What are the 4 types of bricks? ›

What are the different types of bricks?
  • Sun-dried bricks. Also known as unburnt bricks, these types of bricks are mostly used for decorative purposes because they are the weakest. ...
  • Burnt bricks. These bricks are divided into four categories: ...
  • Concrete bricks. ...
  • Lime bricks. ...
  • Engineering bricks. ...
  • Fly ash bricks.

What does M20 mean? ›

For example, for a grade of concrete with 20 MPa strength, it will be denoted by M20, where M stands for Mix. These grade of concrete is converted into various mix proportions. For example, for M20 concrete, mix proportion will be 1:1.5:3 for cement:sand:coarse aggregates.

Why is a brick that size? ›

The tax was levied per brick, and brick makers responded by making much larger bricks, so fewer were needed for a given size wall and the tax was correspondingly less.

How thick is a brick wall? ›

However, the overall thickness of cavity or masonry-bonded hollow walls shall not be less than 8 inches (203 mm), including cavity.
...
2109.4 Thickness of Masonry.
HEIGHT OF WALLSTHICKNESS
8 ft. and under2 in.
Over 8 ft. to 12 ft3 in.
Over 12 ft. to 16 ft4 in.
Over 16 ft. to 20 ft6 in.
1 more row

How do you measure a brick wall? ›

Measure the length of the space for the wall and convert the number to inches. Divide the length in inches by the length of a brick plus mortar joint. For example, a wall 36 feet, 8 inches long is 440 inches long (36 X 12 = 432 + 8 = 440). Each course (single layer) of bricks will need 440 / 8 = 55 bricks.

What is frog in brick? ›

Explanation: Frog is an indentation or depression on the top face of a brick made with the object of forming a key for the mortars. This reduces the weight of the brick also. It is kept on the top face while constructing a wall so that mortar is filled properly in it. Size of frog = 100mm × 40mm × 10mm.

How many bricks are in a square foot? ›

How many bricks per square foot of brick wall? A brick wall needs approximately 5 bricks per square foot with the standard 7.5" x 3.5" bricks. We also need the same number of bricks per square foot with the standard size of 9.5" x 2.75" bricks. The larger the bricks are, the fewer bricks we need to cover a square foot.

What is the weakest brick bond? ›

Stretcher bond

The most commonly used bond in the UK, a pattern is made only using stretchers, with the joins on each course centred above and below by half a brick. This type of bonding is not particularly strong. A variation is the raking stretcher bond.

What is the purpose of brick bonds? ›

Bonding is the industry term that's given to the pattern in which the bricks are laid. Whilst the primary purpose of a bond is to ensure the brickwork is strong and stable, it can also have a dramatic effect on the visual appearance of a wall.

What is the space between bricks called? ›

In masonry, mortar joints are the spaces between bricks, concrete blocks, or glass blocks, that are filled with mortar or grout.

Which brick is best for foundation? ›

Sand lime bricks are most often used in structural foundations and walls, exposed brick and pillars, and, when pigment is added, for ornamental uses.

Which brick is better for construction? ›

The high amount of calcium oxide makes class C fly ash make it the best among the types of bricks used in construction for pillars, foundation, and walls.

What is brick made from? ›

Brick is made of clay or shale formed, dried and fired into manufacturing process. These variations are addressed by a durable ceramic product.

What is a weak bond called? ›

Hydrogen Bonds and Van Der Waals Interactions. Hydrogen bonds are known as weak bonds because under normal biological conditions, they are easily and quickly produced and broken. Of all intermolecular attractions between molecules, Van der Waals interaction is the worst.

How do you identify a bond? ›

Identifying Types of Bonds
  1. Look at the chemical formula.
  2. Identify the elements in the compound.
  3. Determine if the elements are metals or nonmetals (using a periodic table)
  4. Metal – Metal = Metallic.
  5. Metal – Nonmetal = Ionic.
  6. Nonmetal -- Nonmetal = Covalent.

What makes a bond weak? ›

Weak bonds are those forces of attraction that, in biological situations, do not take a large amount of energy to break. For example, hydrogen bonds are broken by energies in the order of 4–5 kcal/mol and van der Waals interactions have energies around 1 kcal/mol.

What size is a brick in CM? ›

What Is The Standard Size Of Brick In Cm? The Indian Standard Institution New Delhi has a Specified Standard Brick of 19 cm × 9 cm x 9 cm, With Mortar 20 cm × 10 cm x 10 cm.

What is the size of a standard house brick? ›

In case you are wondering, a standard US brick size is 8 inches long x 3 5/8 inches wide x 2 1/4 inches high.

What is the general and standard size of brick? ›

India Standard Brick Dimensions

The standard brick dimension is 190 x 90 x 90 mm (length x depth x height) as prescribed by BIS. With mortar thickness, the dimension of the brick remains 200 x 100 x 100 mm.

What is the nominal size of brick? ›

For India, a brick of standard size 190 mmx90 mm x 90 mm is recommended by the BIS. With mortar thickness, the size of such a brick becomes200 mm x 100 mm x 100 mmand it is known as the nominal size of the modular brick.

How many types of bricks are there? ›

There are three main types of bricks - facing bricks, engineering bricks and common bricks.

Is code for brick size? ›

Bricks Sizes as per Indian Standard (IS 1077)

The size of non-modular brick size is 230 x 110 x 70 mm or 230 x 110 x 30 (length x depth x height).

What is the weight of 1 bricks? ›

The weight of 1 brick is 2 kg.

What is width of 1 brick wall? ›

In India, for house construction of residential/ commercial buildings, a standard thickness of brick wall should be kept around 9″ (230 mm) thick for the outer wall, 4.5 ” (120 mm) thick for the internal partition wall, and 3″ (80 mm) thick for cupboard and railing use.

What is the length of 5 bricks? ›

Brick Course Dimension Chart
No. BricksLengthHeight
4950343
4.51070
51190429
5.51310
35 more rows

What is thickness of normal wall? ›

Typically, the wall thickness will be in the range 0.5 mm to 4 mm. In specific cases, wall thicknesses that are either smaller or bigger also occur. A basic design guideline is to keep wall thicknesses as thin and as uniform as possible.

How many bricks are in a 12x12 room? ›

For a 144 sq ft room (12x12 feet), you will need 1713 bricks to make a brick wall.

What is engineer size brick? ›

Engineer. 3 1/2 x 2 3/4 x 7 1/2. 4 x 3 1/5 x 8.

How do you calculate the area of a brick wall? ›

Using thumb rule, formula for brick calculation in square metre for full brick or double layer or 9″ brick wall, multiply the length of brick masonry wall by the height to get area measured in square meter.

How many bricks are in 1m3? ›

How much brick in 1 m3? The correct answer is that 1 m3 requires 500 bricks. For this, we know that the usual brick size is 19” x 9” x 9”, which becomes 20” x 10” x 10”, with mortar.

What is compressive strength of brick? ›

(i) Compressive Strength of first class brick is 105 kg/cm2. (ii) Compressive Strength of 2nd class brick is 70 kg/cm2. (iii) Compressive Strength of common building brick is 35 kg/cm2. (iv) Compressive Strength of sun dried brick is 15 to 25 kg/cm2.

What is the modular size of brick? ›

In other words, a modular brick would be specified as 3⅝ in. × 2¼ in. × 7⅝ in. (92 mm × 57 mm × 194 mm).

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