Energy management is the future of the cruise industry (2022)

Cruise shipping is one of the fastest growing sectors in tourism, in 2015 attracting approximately 23 million passengers around the world. Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. is one of the leading cruise companies in the world, constantly designing and building new futuristic ships and partnering with the world’s leading shipyards, engineers, architects and innovative minds. There is a strong focus on guest experience, safety, energy efficiency and minimising the impact on the environment.

“We are building new technologies from scratch. Regarding energy efficiency we are cutting edge. Energy efficiency also means minimising the environmental impact as a direct consequence of reduced fuel consumption,” explains Harri Kulovaara, executive vice president of maritime at Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd.

Every generation of cruise vessels from the 1990s forward is still in use in the Royal Caribbean fleet. It goes without saying that the development regarding energy efficiency has been accelerating and the older vessels are not nearly as optimal as the latest ones. However, it is quite possible, at a reasonable cost, to achieve considerable savings by upgrading them closer to the latest generations.

Eniram, a leading provider of energy management technology and analytic services to the shipping industry, picked a significant challenge in 2005 when it decided to start optimising the energy consumption onboard cruise vessels. Today, the company optimises the operations in more than 130 large cruise vessels, which accounts for two thirds of the world’s seagoing fleet.

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The process begins with collecting a massive amount of data onboard the vessel during normal operation, using over a trillion measurement points. The data is used to build a model – a mathematical relationship between the different performance elements onboard. Eniram also models the relationship between the ship and the sea with all the affecting factors.

Thanks to advanced statistical methods, Eniram brings real-time guidance to onboard engineers and deck officers on how to best trim the vessel, what speed to operate, how much load the engines should have and which route to take. The guidance is presented in an uncomplicated way on screens with ‘traffic lights’, a principle developed by Eniram. A green light means that the system is performing in an optimal way, a yellow light gives a heads up about a negative trend in performance and a red light indicates the prompt need for action to restore optimal operations.

An example of a current product is Eniram Performance, a system tracking the total energy efficiency of the vessel. It includes a service power model, where the user is able to look at the different components of service power, such as the hotel, HVAC and machinery. Another product installed on cruise ships is Eniram Speed, a system that calculates the ship service power needed for arrival on time with maximum fuel efficiency.

Since 2009, Eniram has been collaborating with Royal Caribbean in order to further improve the performance of the fleet. The first trials resulted in fuel savings of 0.6% on the test vessel. Royal Caribbean was delighted with the result as the vessel was one of the best performing in the fleet and no further savings were thought to be possible. Today energy management and energy optimisation has decreased the fuel consumption by an average of 4% fleetwide in Royal Caribbean. This means an annual saving of approximately US$16 million in fuel costs and an annual reduction of 35,000 tons of carbon dioxide – equivalent to the emissions of 7,000 cars!

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Eniram also provides accumulated data and information from the systems to naval architects and marine engineers at Royal Caribbean, enabling them to design and build better and more optimal ships in the future. The collaboration between Eniram and Royal Caribbean has resulted in several improvements and when comparing energy efficiency of the Quantum class with previous versions, the Quantum class is now more efficient.

When Royal Caribbean was designing the Quantum class, Eniram provided the tools for holistic optimisation of ship energy management. Trim and speed management were a part of an industry-first, ship-wide energy management system (EMS). The latest version of Eniram Performance for Cruise vessels is currently operational on two vessels, as well as Quantum of the Seas. Now through the enhanced KPI feature, officers, engineers and onshore personnel can continually monitor, communicate and discuss the overall performance of a vessel to ensure optimal fuel and energy use.

”Eniram is a great example of the type of companies with whom Royal Caribbean is partnering strongly,” says Kulovaara. “Eniram use technology and data mining to improve operational efficiency of our vessels, and we are most pleased with the results so far.”

Still, there is much more to be won. Looking forward, Eniram and Royal Caribbean are confident that based upon the actual collected data and their joint experience so far, an additional 10% savings can be achieved for both newbuilds and existing vessels.

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”The emphasis will be on real-time management of the whole fleet of vessels, enabling a predictive capability for the crew to take measures,” says Henrik Dahl, CEO of Eniram. “For example, if a vessel for any reason should deviate from the planned and forecasted performance, Eniram and Royal Caribbean, as well as the officers onboard, will get instant notification. Royal Caribbean’s shoreside specialists and Eniram's support team are able to identify the deviation online and assist the crew to solve the problem and get back on track.”

Dahl adds: “What we are doing is not about controlling the captains. It is rather about Eniram and Royal Caribbean together supporting the crew to make savings. It will be what Houston is for space crafts, indeed a command centre, but there for the officers onboard the vessels to provide support.”

Both Eniram and Royal Caribbean are convinced that the 10% goal in further savings is quite realistic. A crucial issue is to navigate the vessel in the most efficient way, regarding, for example, the routes and the service speed. This also covers the operation of other onboard systems, such as power generation, propulsion, fuel, energy consumption in the hotel area, and supporting infrastructure of the ship. No stone must be left unturned to run the operations in the most efficient way.

”The potential is also perhaps more substantial and harder than the onboard optimisation,” says Dahl. “Going from optimising 40 vessels to a fleet involving more than 50,000 people needs a completely different approach, especially as there are only 75 Eniramers. This is why the approach needs to be a joint partnership.”

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The future approach to energy management is to expand it to cover all areas of operations and utilise experience when designing new ships. The development is going towards more and more automated ships with smart sensors and intelligent algorithms monitoring every element of operations and design ensuring that the vessel is operated at its optimal performance in every situation.

On the shoreside, the trend is transparency. Every vessel will have a dynamic efficiency rating of its own, which could even be made public to drive a change and provide full transparency. This will enable Eniram to make sure that not only the Royal Caribbean fleet is state-of-the art, but that all cruise vessels and other types of ships are operated as efficiently as possible.

With 44 ships, 1,002,000 guests and employing 60,000 people, Royal Caribbean is the world’s second largest cruise company, operating six brands. As one of the primary innovation leaders in the industry, Royal Caribbean has brought to the market the largest cruise vessels in the world, namely the Oasis class and the Quantum class.

Eniram is the leading provider of energy management technology and analytic services to the shipping industry. Eniram is headquartered in Helsinki, Finland and has subsidiaries in the UK, US, Germany and Singapore, and employs 75 people.

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A video of a conversation between with Harri Kulovaara and Hans Dahl at the recent Slush technology 2015 conference in Helsinki, Finland, in which they discuss the partnership between Royal Caribbean and Eniram, can be found here.

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What is the primary energy source of a cruise ship? ›

The traditional cruise ships rely heavily on diesel (less than 0.1% sulfur) for their propulsion. The power system on board, including the generators and the boilers, also operate on this fuel.

How can ships improve energy efficiency? ›

Operational measures to increase operational efficiency

These include slow-speed operation planning, higher capacity and resource utilization, and precise communication between shipping entities for efficient route planning. Reducing the turnaround time in ports is another way of increasing ship efficiency.

How do cruise ships get energy? ›

Nearly all contemporary cruise ships are powered by electricity (motors turn propellers). It powers the air conditioning systems, lights and all other appliances aboard the ship. Most vessels produce the electricity they need by using diesel engines. Some use gas turbine engines.

What can cruise lines do to be more sustainable? ›

Here's 9 things cruises can do to be more sustainable:
  • Advanced water-waste treatment technology. ...
  • Reducing waste. ...
  • Cleaner exhaust. ...
  • Alternative power. ...
  • Upgraded service technology. ...
  • Crew and passenger engagement. ...
  • Sustainable food sources. ...
  • Optimized ship design.
2 May 2019

What energy do cruise ships use? ›

Modern cruise ships use either gas turbine or diesel electric engines as their power source for propulsion, as well as for the ship's systems. The larger the cruise ship, the greater the demand for electrical power.

How much energy does a cruise ship use? ›

How important is the ship's size? Ultimately, size has a weighty impact on how far a ship can sail. On a daily basis, the average cruise ship uses around 140-150 tonnes of fuel, or 30 to 50 gallons per mile. Like vehicle travel, hitting higher speeds increases drag which results in more fuel usage.

What is ship energy efficiency management Plan? ›

The Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP) is an operational measure that establishes a mechanism to improve the energy efficiency of a ship in a cost-effective manner.

How can the ship Energy Management Plan increase shipboard energy efficiency? ›

The Ship Energy efficiency management plan to improve the efficiency of the ship can be implemented in various ways such as by optimizing the speed of the vessel, making a course change to tackle rough weather, hull cleaning in dry dock, installing heat recovery methods etc.

How should the energy efficiency of a ship be monitored? ›

Energy Efficiency Design Index

The EEDI provides a specific figure for an individual ship design, expressed in grams of carbon dioxide (CO2) per ship's capacity-mile (the smaller the EEDI the more energy efficient ship design) and is calculated by a formula based on the technical design parameters for a given ship.

What happens when a cruise ship loses power? ›

The generators can provide emergency lighting, fire detection systems, operate elevators and even provide power to re-start the engines, if necessary. They can also power communication channels - radio, telefax, email, so the ship can continue to communicate with shoreside.

How much fuel do cruise ships hold? ›

In general, a large cruise ship up to 1,100 feet in length can carry as much as two million gallons of fuel on board. For comparison, a private motor yacht between 40 and 60 feet only carries 200 to 1,200 gallons, while something massive like the Exxon Valdez carries up to 55 million gallons.

How do cruise ships fuel up? ›

Where Do Ships Get Their Fuel? - YouTube

Which cruise line is the most sustainable? ›

Virgin Voyages

Virgin also bans single-use plastics on board and has no buffet, which cuts down on food waste — 225 tons per ship per year, according to the line's Sea Change report. Seafood and coffee served on board, among other items, are sustainably sourced.

Is cruising more environmentally friendly than flying? ›

Cruise ships emit more carbon per passenger kilometre than flying, even considering the extra damage that emissions cause at high altitude. It's thought that the Queen Mary II

Queen Mary II
RMS Queen Mary 2 (also referred to as the QM2) is a British transatlantic ocean liner. She has served as the flagship of Cunard Line since succeeding Queen Elizabeth 2 in 2004. As of 2022, Queen Mary 2 is the only ocean liner (as opposed to a cruise ship) still in service. › wiki › Queen_Mary_2
emits 0.43kg of CO2 per passenger mile – that's even worse than the 0.257kg for a long-haul flight.

Is cruising good for the environment? ›

Cruise ships are a catastrophe for the environment — and that's not an overstatement. They dump toxic waste into our waters, fill the planet with carbon dioxide, and kill marine wildlife. Cruise ships' environmental impact is never ending, and they continue to get bigger. They once were small ships, around 30,000 tons.

Are there any electric cruise ships? ›

The world's largest electric cruise ship has made its maiden voyage, settling back into port in Yichang in China's central Hubei province after cruising up and down the Yangtze River. Powered by a massive 7,500 kilowatt-hour marine battery from the world's No.

Do cruise ships use nuclear power? ›

Nuclear power plants have been used on military ships but almost never on passenger ships. A single nuclear-powered cargo vessel that also carried a small number of passengers, the NS Savannah, debuted in 1959 and operated for several years.

How many Motors does a cruise ship have? ›

Modern cruise ships don't have just one engine. The biggest ships like Royal Caribbean's Oasis-class ships have six engines and most other cruise ships have four. Cruise ship engine rooms

engine rooms
The engine room is generally the largest physical compartment of the machinery space. It houses the vessel's prime mover, usually some variations of a heat engine (steam engine, diesel engine, gas or steam turbine). › wiki › Engine_room
are very large, spanning several decks.

Are cruise ships major polluters? ›

Cruise Ship Pollution

Although cruise ships make up only 1 percent of the global fleet, they account for 6 percent of black carbon (BC) emissions. This reveals how disproportionately bad for the environment cruise ships are, releasing the highest amount of black carbon per ship of any vessel.

How much fuel does a cruise ship use per hour? ›

But, on average, the ratio for refueling a cruise ship is 110 tons (about 3,500 gallons) of fuel per hour.

What engines do cruise ships use? ›

When it comes to cruise ships, the typical engine is a two 16-cylinder Wartsila 16V 46D which is a common rail engine. They also use three 12-cylinder Wartsila 12V 46D engines to power the ship. Each one of these produces about 19,480 kw of water.

What is the main purpose of energy efficiency management? ›

Energy management is the means to controlling and reducing a building's energy consumption, which enables owners and operators to: Reduce costs – energy represents 25% of all operating costs in an office building. Reduce carbon emissions in order to meet internal sustainability goals and regulatory requirements.

What are the four steps that improve ship energy efficiency management plan? ›

❖ It encourages the ship-owner, to incorporate new technologies and adopt best management practices to ensure an energy efficient ship operation. The SEEMP approach seeks to improve a ship's energy efficiency through four steps: ❖ Planning, ❖ Implementation, ❖ Monitoring, ❖ Self-evaluation and Improvement.

What should a ship energy efficiency management plan preferably be linked to? ›

Preferably, the ship-specific SEEMP is linked to a broader corporate energy management policy for the company that owns, operates or controls the ship, recognizing that no two shipping companies are the same, and that ships operate under a wide range of different conditions.

Which of the following is more energy efficient? ›

Complete answer: Compact Fluorescent lamp (CFL) is more energy efficient among all the given options.

How can I improve my EEOI? ›

Speed reduction

It is proven that slow ship is less energy intensive than a fast one. On average, lowering speed by 10 percent allows a fuel consumption reduction of about 20 percent per distance. It is therefore the most direct way to improve the EEOI.

What is energy efficiency eXisting ship Index? ›

The Energy Efficiency eXisting ship Index (EEXI) is a measure introduced by the IMO to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions of ships. The EEXI is a measure related to the technical design of a ship. Ships have to attain EEXI approval once in a lifetime, by the first periodical survey in 2023 at the latest.

Why is the documentation of energy efficiency measures beneficial? ›

EE and EC measures can help to directly lower energy costs for consumers and potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions associated with energy use. Consumers also benefit indirectly when reducing their electricity demand helps to reduce costs of electricity generation, transmission, and distribution.

When should self evaluation take place as part of a vessels ship energy efficiency management plan cycle? ›

3.15 Self-evaluation and improvement is the final phase of the management cycle. This phase should produce meaningful feedback for the coming first stage, i.e. planning stage of the next improvement cycle.

What does EEDI stand for? ›

Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI), formulated for new ships, is an index that estimates grams of CO2 per transport work (g of CO2 per tonne-mile). It can be expressed as the ratio of “environmental cost” divided by “Benefit for Society”.

How long do cruise ship engines last? ›

The average marine gasoline engine runs for 1,500 hours before needing a major overhaul. The average marine diesel engine will run for more than three times that long and log an average 5,000 hours under the same conditions.

Do cruise ships ever turn their engines off? ›

Unlike parking a car in your garage for months at a time, cruise ships cannot be simply turned off and left alone. They are designed to be fully operational all the time, unlike your car which is designed to be in the off position.

How often does a cruise ship break down? ›

On average that's about 2.5 ships a year.

Why do cruise ships smoke so much? ›

Why Are Cruise Ships So Polluting? Firstly, they run on diesel engines, gas turbines, or both. They also frequently burn fuel oil, which contains 2,000 times as much sulfur oxides (SOx) as regular diesel. To be clear, SOx is carcinogenic, which is Greek for “really bad”.

How much does a cruise ship captain make? ›

According to Payscale, the average salary of a cruise ship captain is $96,000 per year, in a salary range that varies from $48,485 to $180,308. A captain's responsibilities are far broader than just steering the ship.

How much do cruise ship workers make? ›

The 35 current and former cruise-ship employees who spoke with Business Insider had average monthly earnings of about $3,233 and median monthly earnings of about $2,600.

What type of fuel do cruise ships burn? ›

The traditional cruise ships rely heavily on diesel (less than 0.1% sulfur) for their propulsion. The power system on board, including the generators and the boilers, also operate on this fuel.

How much oil does a cruise ship engine take? ›

Large cruise ship (900–1,100 feet): 1–2 million gallons. Inland tank barge (200–300 feet): 400,000–1.2 million gallons.

Which type of fuel is used in ships? ›


Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) is a category of fuel oils of a tar-like consistency. Also known as bunker fuel, or residual fuel oil, HFO is the result or remnant from the distillation and cracking process of petroleum. › wiki › Heavy_fuel_oil
or heavy fuel oil is the most widely used type of fuels for commercial vessels. The fuel oil releases energy to rotate the ship propeller or the alternator by burning fuel inside the combustion chamber of the engine or to generate steam inside the boiler.

How are cruise ships becoming more sustainable? ›

By incorporating new waste removal methods, materials are sorted more efficiently. Some ships even donate reusable materials to at-need communities in port. Reducing waste is more than just a sum of activities. It creates an environment of sustainability which impacts crew, passengers, and those on shore.

How are cruise ships going green? ›

Cruise lines have made their ships more fuel efficient by implementing a few different tactics, according to CLIA. They have added air lubrication systems to many ship hulls, which reduce drag and fuel consumption. Those reductions lead to greater efficiency as do energy-efficient engines that consume less fuel.

Do cruises cause pollution? ›

A passenger's carbon footprint triples in size when taking a cruise and the emissions produced can contribute to serious health issues. On top of the pollution caused by their exhaust fumes, cruise ships have been caught discarding trash, fuel, and sewage directly into the ocean.

Do cruise ships pollute more than cars? ›

Cruise ships can produce more carbon dioxide than 12,000 cars, scientists warn. EXETER, England — Cruises should be curbed until they undergo massive environmental regulations, after it was discovered just one ship can produce more carbon dioxide than 12,000 cars, scientists say.

What is the most polluting form of transport? ›

Planes Remain A Problematic Means Of Transport

Air traffic represents less than 2-3% of the global CO2 emissions whereas road traffic accounts for around 10% of these direct emissions. Still, planes remain among the most polluting means of transport, together with cars.

How much CO2 does a cruise ship emit per day? ›

Based on an estimated total number of about 25.8 million cruise ship passengers in 2017, it can be estimated that the average cruise ship passenger emits 0.82 tonnes of carbon dioxide-equivalent for their cruise.

Are cruise ships worse for the environment than cars? ›

According to a recent study published in Marine Pollution Bulletin, a large cruise ship can have a carbon footprint greater than 12,000 cars, while passengers on an Antarctic cruise can produce as much CO2 emissions on a seven-day voyage as the average European in an entire year, the study said.

Do cruise ships dump human waste into the ocean? ›

Do Cruise Ships Dump Sewage? Yes. To get into a few more specifics than above, the U.S. allows cruise ships to dump treated waste into the ocean if they are within three and a half miles from shore. Beyond that point, there are no restrictions for dumping untreated, raw sewage in U.S. ocean waters.

What is primary energy source? ›

Primary energy sources include fossil fuels (petroleum, natural gas, and coal), nuclear energy, and renewable sources of energy. Electricity is a secondary energy source that is generated (produced) from primary energy sources.

What is primary energy supply? ›

Definition of. Primary energy supply. Primary energy supply is defined as energy production plus energy imports, minus energy exports, minus international bunkers, then plus or minus stock changes.

Do cruise ships use nuclear power? ›

Nuclear power plants have been used on military ships but almost never on passenger ships. A single nuclear-powered cargo vessel that also carried a small number of passengers, the NS Savannah, debuted in 1959 and operated for several years.

What is the world's primary energy source? ›

Globally we get the largest amount of our energy from oil, followed by coal, gas, then hydroelectric power. As we look at in more detail below – “How much of global energy comes from low-carbon sources?” – the global energy mix is still dominated by fossil fuels. They account for more than 80% of energy consumption.

What are the 5 sources of energy? ›

There are five major renewable energy sources
  • Solar energy from the sun.
  • Geothermal energy from heat inside the earth.
  • Wind energy.
  • Biomass from plants.
  • Hydropower from flowing water.

How can we conserve energy? ›

Here are 10 energy conservation ideas you can get started with today.
  • Turn your refrigerator down. ...
  • Use energy-efficient light bulbs. ...
  • Clean or replace air filters as recommended. ...
  • Do full loads. ...
  • Use smart power strips. ...
  • Air-dry dishes and clothes. ...
  • Bake with glass or ceramic pans. ...
  • Cook using the right-sized burner.

Why is energy important? ›

Energy is so important in our daily lives because it is a basic human need. We use energy to not only heat our human-made structures but we use it to cool them as well. Energy is necessary for getting up out of bed, walking down the street, or even lifting your finger.

Which is the second largest source of global energy? ›

Correct Option: C. Data for 2013 shows that renewable electricity generation overtook natural gas to become the second largest source of electricity worldwide producing 22% of total electricity or 5,130 TWh.

What is a final energy? ›

Definition. Final or available energy is the energy delivered to consumers for end consumption (petrol at the pump, electricity in the household, etc.).

What are secondary sources of energy? ›

Electricity, refined automotive fuel, hydrogen, compressed air and microwave radiation are all types of secondary energy.

Why are there no nuclear-powered cruise ships? ›

The startup costs of nuclear aren't nothing—besides the reactor itself, there's security, insurance, etc—but Nuclear Engineering International estimates that, factoring in lower fuel costs, a given ship could break even within 10 to 20 years.

Do nuclear-powered ships need fuel? ›

Nuclear power is particularly suitable for vessels which need to be at sea for long periods without refuelling, or for powerful submarine propulsion. Over 160 ships are powered by more than 200 small nuclear reactors. Most are submarines, but they range from icebreakers to aircraft carriers.

How many engines do cruise ships have? ›

Modern cruise ships don't have just one engine. The biggest ships like Royal Caribbean's Oasis-class ships have six engines and most other cruise ships have four. Cruise ship engine rooms

engine rooms
The engine room is generally the largest physical compartment of the machinery space. It houses the vessel's prime mover, usually some variations of a heat engine (steam engine, diesel engine, gas or steam turbine). › wiki › Engine_room
are very large, spanning several decks.

What is the largest sources of energy? ›

Fossil fuels are the largest sources of energy for electricity generation.

What consumes the most energy? ›

What Can I Unplug? These Household Items Cost the Most Electricity
  • Cooling and heating: 47% of energy use.
  • Water heater: 14% of energy use.
  • Washer and dryer: 13% of energy use.
  • Lighting: 12% of energy use.
  • Refrigerator: 4% of energy use.
  • Electric oven: 3-4% of energy use.
  • TV, DVD, cable box: 3% of energy use.
26 May 2020


1. How Cruise Ships Are Destroying The World
(Second Thought)
2. What is Storylines?
(Storylines At Sea)
3. How Cruise Ships Work
4. Offshore Wind - The Future of Energy and Industry in the Gulf of Mexico
(Houston Maritime Center)
5. Snapshots – Energy efficiency in the Cruise & Ferry industries | Wärtsilä
6. Cruise Industry Environmental Efforts
(CLIA Global)

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